Post-Urbanism and Cold: Geo-Cultural Images and Representations of Cultural Landscapes of the Northern and Arctic Cities
Dmitry Zamyatin
The Ontology of Cold and the Specificity of Humanitarian and Geographical studies of the Northern and Arctic Cities
Cold is a perception and a feeling that has deep ontological backgrounds. Human communities, their structures, forms, functions, and the peculiarities of their interactions have developed largely in the struggle with cold and its derivatives such as snow, ice and wind. It is especially characteristic for the areas within both the temperate belt and the polar regions, as well as in areas where a harsh continental climate prevails. Human emotions associated with cold often have negative connotations: being cold can be unpleasant or even scary. Nevertheless, if people are warmly dressed, they might be willing to assign positive qualities to the cold or frost. The struggle with the cold shapes and forms the creativity of communities living in the extreme conditions found in the circumpolar regions of the Earth. In addition to that, for the relatively small fraction of people who seek extreme experiences and who want to triumph over the odds, these cold regions form some of the most attractive testing grounds. And finally, the semiotics and semantics of the binary oppositions "warmth/cold" or "heat/cold" and "hot/cold" can often determine many other human feelings and emotions, from love and joy to rejection and hatred. "Cold" turns out to be an important existential category, a concept, a metaphor and an archetype, through which the lives of communities and individuals are largely shaped [Chartier, 2017; Friberg, 2009].
The cultural landscapes of cold are an ambiguous anthropological phenomenon that expresses a complex integrity of unique geo-cultural images, representations of space, and ways of adaptation to low temperatures and their consequences [Bogoslovskaya, Krupnik, 2013; Zamyatin, 2015, 2017; Romanova, Zamyatin, 2017; Larsen, Hemmersam, 2018; Nyseth, Viken, 2009], which can change depending on technological, political, social and economic circumstances. The concept of cold and the cold landscape is largely relative or subjective, which can lead to overlaps, conflicts and interactions between geo-cultural images of different kinds and origins. In other words, the cold landscapes of the indigenous inhabitants of the circumpolar regions or highlands or areas with a harsh continental climate may not coincide with the same landscapes in the minds and representations of people and communities arriving from outside and settling in these areas.
The phenomenological bases for structuring the cultural landscape of the northern and arctic cities
The cultural landscape of the northern or arctic city is a generalized unity, it’s the integrity of geo-cultural images of cold, snow and ice, wind, sparse vegetation, it’s the dominance of darkness for most of the year, the difficulty of outside communication, the specific architectural and planning solutions aimed at combating the extreme natural conditions. Moreover, the population of such cities is relatively small and often sees high levels of migration. This leads to the basic cells of the cultural landscape being relatively small and the visual and expressive elements of the landscape being relatively noticeable. This affects its material components including buildings, cars and other objects as well. The comparative lack of colour in the natural components of the arctic city landscape can, as a rule, be replaced by a diverse range of colours of artificial origin and based on the well-developed grounds of the coloristic policy of circumpolar urbanism [Efimov, 1990, p. 103; Khromov, 1987].

Nevertheless, due to its uniqueness each northern city requires the development of a special geo-cultural or cultural landscape policy, which aims to find mental and material unique features of space to form easily recognizable, attractive and comfortable iconic places.

Cold cities do not encourage communication outside between residents for much of the year. At the same time, because of its relatively small size and the frequency of natural disasters including blizzards, snowstorms, ice, snow drifts, and the occasional incursions of large animals, it can usually be regarded as conventionally "open to nature". Finally, the activities of most northerners are very closely linked to the surrounding landscape, be it fishing, hunting, hiking, or outdoor activities [Taylor et al., 2016]. In other words, northern communities are much less likely to distinguish themselves as being "out of nature", and more likely to remain an integral part of it; there is no clear boundary between culture and nature. At the same time, it is the fluctuations of low temperatures as well as the length of the dark hours that fix physiological thresholds which require building strong defensive structures, material and symbolic "bastions" guarding human warmth and light.
The construction of cold cultural landscapes relies primarily on mechanisms to give meaning to expressive visual objects, regardless of their natural or artificial origin. The key expressive points can be associated both with hyperbolizing and emphasizing the signs of absolute or extreme cold, or, on the contrary, with an indication of the successful overcoming of cold as an obstacle and a barrier; the same can apply to the phenomenon of darkness as a sign of a particularly cold period. An arctic city is a space whose visual appearance may seem strange and unattractive to the outside observer, because of the special technological and planning solutions designed to protect its inhabitants from severe cold, and buildings and structures from premature collapse. Due to the proliferation of indoor roofed spaces in large public buildings (shopping malls, sports facilities, cultural and exhibition complexes), enclosed from extreme conditions, sometimes wide cultivation of greenhouses with thermophilic plants, the cultural landscape gets introverted, i.e. the artificial environment begins to symbolize the transformation of cold and dark spaces into warm and bright ones [Shubenkov, Blagodeteleva, 2015; Kenny, 2017; Lokken, Haggarde, 2016]. Thus, the cultural landscape of northern cities can represent a kind of "patchwork quilt" of everyday and iconic places, sharply polarized in terms of the emotional experiences of mental and bodily comfort and discomfort.
Communication structure and identity formation in the cultural landscape of arctic cities
The communication space of a northern city is usually associated with the limited mobility of communities and people, which is restricted by the natural conditions [Podvintsev, 2016; Saburova, 2016]. On the one hand, there are very few places of direct public communication and they have a heightened symbolic significance, because they are scarce and they are important for certain, albeit small, groups of individuals. On the other hand, the ways people communicate are closely related to the specifics of certain types of mobilities. For example, severe frosts or blizzards can lead to the cancellation of an appointment and the transfer of communication to a virtual space, which sometimes becomes dominant for these purposes. Due to their relatively small populations, arctic cities form cultural landscapes with a greater share of communicatively iconic places, whereby their emotional expressive colours may be based precisely on the corresponding opposite concepts of "cold / warm", "cold / hot", etc. [Eliasson et al., 2007].

Geo-cultural images of northern and arctic cities in their origin are associated with the increased mobility of their founders and inhabitants [Zamyatina, 2014, 2016a; Laruelle, 2017]. To put it crudely and generically, the cold makes you move, walk or run - otherwise you freeze. However, the underlying meanings of the founding and development of such cities are more likely than in the case of the cities with temperate and warmer climate to be linked to the traditionally high mobility of indigenous communities, most often remaining nomadic before the invasion or arrival of new communities [Schweitzer, 2016; Tomiak, Patrick, 2010]. Urban communities in northern cities, which are made up of people of diverse origins are characterized by high migratory activity due to clear life cycles that often begin outside the north and the arctic, develop within these regions and finish outside of it. These communities are also characterized by a desire for increased daily mobility, linked to both survival concerns, physically demanding work – often involving the development of extractive industries – and a particular lifestyle oriented towards the archetypes of constant movement and conditional nomadism [Golovnev, 2015; Haitun, 1982].

The aboriginal people of the North and the Arctic, whether representatives of the indigenous people or the descendants of settlers, form unique urban communities that reproduce traditional values and rituals, including those associated with high mobility [Peters, Andersen, 2013; Nyseth, Pedersen, 2014]. The sacral or para-sacral character of these values can be expressed in various individual and community seasonal events, like the winter welcome celebrations [Nesmelaya, 2013; Romanova, 1993]. At the same time, some residents of the northern cities live in them for a relatively short time, briefly arriving for shift work. These people, transposing their original identities to the northern cultural landscape, acquire temporary, constantly erased and newly emerging urban identities, initially associated with increased, including pendular, mobility [Eilm-Steiner-Saxinger, 2010; Silin, Tkacheva, 2015]. The "amalgam" of rather heterogeneous territorial identities overlapping and penetrating each other creates specific, sometimes cosmopolitan urban landscapes of northern cities, in which geo-cultural images of cold can play a unifying role.
Geo-cultures of the northern cities: problems of differentiation
and postcolonial practices
Northern and arctic cities are usually located in sparsely populated areas, a kind of "desert". These cities are rare and few, so their cultural landscapes are 'insular' to the territory. They become the nuclei and the places of a high concentration of certain geo-cultural images, myths, and identities. In a sense, the cultural landscapes of such cities have a much higher density of iconic and symbolic places, similar to the zones of deserts or highlands, also accompanied by a higher intensity of geo-cultural events and manifestations than in larger cities in more densely developed territories.
At the same time, being very often monofunctional in their economic structure and focused on the development of extractive industries or a particular area of production, often mining, northern cities are rather fragile. Their ups and downs in connection with the history of countries and regions make their cultural landscapes fragile, representations of which may reflect the stages of decline, ruin or long-term conservation of residential areas, office and industrial buildings, and technological infrastructure [Zamyatina, 2018; Saxinger et al., 2016]. Clearly, in such cases the role of cold becomes quite significant. It shows the relative fragility and significant instability of northern urban landscapes. Local geo-cultural images of abandonment, exile, disintegration, decay, and death in these cities are closely associated with the image of cold and snow as a "white shroud".

The reason for being in a cold world and the creation of different perceptions of the existence and perception of cold worlds determine the contradictory, ambiguous existential essence of the cultural landscapes of the arctic cities. They are extremely diverse because the cold is experienced, imagined, and perceived primarily physically, and acute physiological sensations become the basis for various psycho-emotional states. Different geo-cultures of arctic cities, such as geo-cultures of indigenous peoples, immigrants, well-rooted and well-settled, shift workers who do not expect to stay here for long [Smirnov, 2017], all of them can demonstrate distinctive, different reactions to the cold and its components, form their landscapes that include or, conversely, exclude the image of cold as the core of different perceptions of the territory. In this sense, the same urban place or overall landscape can possess a huge range of heterogeneous corporeal images, and their type of "cold" will be completely differently portrayed and associated with different emotional affects. The same northern city can "produce" many different images of cold, due to its geo-cultural mosaicism.

The production of cold in the figurative-symbolic and phenomenological sense, as well as the production of space [Lefebvre, 2015], can become a field of interaction, coordination of interests, and struggle not only of different geo-cultures, but also of political and bureaucratic groups or commercial companies and corporations. Traditional mythological images and rituals of indigenous peoples associated with cold and related phenomena can become the subject of invisible expropriation and transformation by interested political and economic actors, local or external to the city or region. Geo-cultural images of cold largely determine the symbolic capital of many arctic cities and settlements [Zamyatina, 2016b]. Accordingly, these funds can be transformed into specific business projects that further determine both economic and financial capitalization of such cities and territories. The complex interweaving of cultural, economic and political landscapes of arctic cities in their relation to the phenomenon of cold can to some extent represent specific postcolonial practices, indicating not only financial but also figurative and symbolic exploitation of territories [Hanrahan, 2017; Huggan, Jensen, 2016; Thisted, 2017; Ween, Lien, 2016].
Cold cities and post-urbanism: towards new cartographies of the imagination
Cold is a substance inherent in various natural elements – water, air, and earth. Icy water and cold air, frozen ground and snow squeaking underfoot appear as direct geo-cultural representations of cold spaces. They act simultaneously as fundamental elements and foundations of being, forming various geo-cultural systems, cultural landscapes that include various phenomena originating in material and expressive cold environments. This means that cold contributes to the processes of shifting everything associated with the warm season towards smooth nomadic spaces of white "luminous" darkness, conveying images of nothingness and death. On the other hand, the same manifestations of cold bring to life local processes generating newly "grooved" spaces of human communities "domesticating" snow, ice, wind and permafrost as integral parts of their lived worlds [Deleuze, Guattari, 2008, 2010]. Cold geo-cultures imagine, design, construct, and build their settlements and cities in such a way that, as they freeze and warm up, they can deeply experience, feel and live the diverse landscapes of streams that cross the boundaries of reality and imagination.

Post-urbanism and the phenomenon of the post-city as such are largely based on the idea of co-spatiality, developing which we can imagine post-city reality as an infinite set of parallel, coexisting and disconnected streams of spatiality. They also give rise to a multitude of moving events-spatialities, within which new types of communication develop [Zamyatin, 2018, 2019]. Cold as a principle of existence and cultural landscape of the northern city can be a phenomenological basis for the dynamic post-urbanism of northern and arctic territories, as they are initially characterized by "aggravated" manifestations of displacement, the strong isolation of body and corporeality, creating strictly regulated flows of movement and communication. The body, defending itself against the cold, creates 'an echelon system of defense' through specific clothing, special architecture, and original modes of movement. On the other hand, in the presence of heating sources, the body tends to undress in every possible way, to seem as erotic and communicative as possible. In this way it constructs a multitude of new mobile, often spontaneous situations-spatialities [Harbo, Roto, 2016; Levander, 2009]. One could say that cold cities turn out to be a phenomenological field that disperses post-urbanism, and they create a special version of it, connected with the increased role of the relation between the sacred and the corporeal.

Specific forms of post-urbanism, which can be generated by geo-cultures of cold cities of circumpolar regions, can also be sources of new meta-geographies of urban spaces [Zamyatin, 2005]. Science, art, literature, and philosophy that explore different representations of cold landscapes should focus their attention on the numerous cartographies of the imagination that describe the worlds of circumpolar co-spatialities. Analysis of such cartographies and their underlying local 'wish machines' can help to identify the most important geo-cultural images of cold that are specific to our era. The overlaps, intersections, and interactions of these images and fragments of post-urban realities create opportunities for effective geo-cultural branding of northern and arctic territories [Zamyatin et al., 2017; Fox, 2018].