According to the indigenous peoples of Siberia and, in particular, the Yakuts, the universe consists of three worlds: Upper (celestial), Middle (human) and Lower (underground). The Upper world is divided into tiers and is inhabited by gods and spirits, the same hierarchy is in the Lower World. In Yakut mythology, the evil spirits of all three worlds are called Abaasy, and the spiritual worlds themselves are called Doidu. More benevolent spirits were associated with the cult of ancestors and were called Ayyy. This cosmogony is described in Olonkho, the oldest epic art of the Yakuts. The central theme of Olonkho is the biography of the epic Ayyy Aimaga tribe – the progenitors of people who achieve a happy life in the Middle World. Usually the main character of Olonkho is a hero or a heroine from the Ayyy tribe, who is endowed with extraordinary qualities from birth. His main goal is to fulfill what fate has ordained for him: most often, it is to protect his own kind or even all people. The antipode for such a hero is a hero from the tribe of Abaasy, a dark spirit hostile to people. The rest of the characters are grouped around the main character and his opponent, representing members of their tribes.
Returning to shamanism, it is worth saying that it was not enough for the shaman himself to believe in his vocation, it is also important that he has to prove his destiny to others, because the shaman's activity in the era of the communal-tribal system performed the function of protection and representation of his kind. Shamanism and shamanic practices are often considered as something connected not only with altered states of consciousness, but also with some mental disorders and even diseases. A considerable amount of research has been created on this topic, but it is impossible to accept a single point of view on this issue. According to one of the researchers, the shaman's condition during the ritual (ritual or spiritual practice) can be called psychopathic, but only by some signs. First of all, the main sign of a mentally ill person is his social maladaptation, the inability to build communication with people. Shamans, on the contrary, are actively introduced into society, being not only its bright representative, but a saviour from diseases and other sabotage of evil spirits. There are also opinions that shamanic illness and an ardent desire to become a shaman is nothing more than a strong psychological autosuggestion, often provoked by the use of substances that excite the nervous system (fly agaric is most often called as such a substance).
Nowadays, practices and beliefs that are directly related to shamanism have been preserved in many places and are even flourishing, receiving the name "neo-shamanism" and becoming an independent religious movement. On the territory of Siberia, each ethnic group revives its shamanic traditions, adapting them to modern realities. And it would be correct to consider Alexander Gabyshev and the movement created by him from this point of view, although Gabyshev himself does not belong to any "official" shamanic organizations. Can Alexander Gabyshev be called a shaman then? He is really well versed in shamanism, but has never been "officially" recognized as a shaman by any shamanic religious organization. Gabyshev lived in the forest for a long time and, according to him, it was there that he heard the calls of the spirits to become a shaman. This fact correlates directly with the culture and traditions of shamanism. In addition, according to Gabyshev, the spirits also outlined his goal to him, his way of protecting people from the evil spirit. And here we can observe a direct connection with the existing shamanic culture of being chosen, a sense of one's destiny, which must be proved by deed, namely by going to Moscow to expel the evil spirit.