A similar project was carried out in Russia. In 1991, anthropologists Asen Baliksi and Mark Badger and their colleagues from Moscow State University and the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences organized a seminar on visual anthropology in the village of Kazym, Khanty-Mansiysk district. Six Khanty, two Nenets and two Yakuts studied methods of observational shooting, watched and discussed ethnographic films under the guidance of university anthropologists. Like the Worth-Adair experiment, the Kazym seminar was innovative in the field of visual anthropology (and the first focused on the peoples of the Russian north), but at the same time remained a paternalistic project. University anthropologists taught representatives of indigenous peoples to shoot, even if doing everything so that the process was two-way. Is it possible to compare these projects with the Soviet film classification of Yakutia? Yes, early Soviet cinema ethnography (from the 19th edition of Kinopravda to Alexander Litvinov's film Yakutia, 1940) portrayed indigenous peoples as backward cultures transformed under socialism. But having nationalized cinematography in the 1920s, the Soviets attracted many Yakuts to the courses of projectionists, handing the cameras into the hands of aborigines (this is the terminology used by anthropologist Worth in the 1960s, and in the Decree of the Presidium of the YCIK of November 19, 1928). Worth, Adair, Balixi, Badger and other visual anthropologists devoted their participants to the peculiarities of anthropological cinema, so that they could shoot whatever they wanted. Soviet cinematography, partially aligned with the policy of "indigenization" (the promotion of national identities through quotas for the number of seats in government agencies and the promotion of national languages), also created a previously non-existent field of visual self-expression. Of course, there were differences in the limits imposed on this self-expression. Soviet film classifiers knew in advance what they wanted to give to newly consecrated cinematographers and what to get from them. Yes, in the post-war years, the "fourth cinema" appeared in the USSR. An obvious Soviet example is a series of works by Yuri Nitochkin, shot in collaboration with the Chukchi writer Yuri Rytkheu in the 1970s and early 1980s. Indigenous cinema without the admixture of Soviet conventions appeared in Russia only by the end of the 1980s.